A Deplorable Political Revolution

Brexit. Trump. Bernie.

Whether it’s Boris Johnson in England — whose UKIP led the misleading and unfortunate movement to separate the country from the EU — or Bernie Sanders — whose “revolution” ended in successfully pushing his party’s platform much farther left than Hillary Clinton probably would have liked — the political world is being seized by radically different candidates and movements.

With the force of young people and the chronically disadvantaged behind them, these movements have the potential to not only drive our world forward on issues like education, justice reform and women’s rights, they also reveal deeply entrenched divisions and long-harbored hatreds in societies around the world.

Donald Trump took the GOP by storm and bent the entire party to his will while garnering only 46 percent of the GOP primary votes. His rise to the top of “The Party of Lincoln” was an exercise in opposites, with the candidate garnering the most votes, for and against him, of any candidate in U.S. primary election history.

Political experts all over the spectrum have composed a similar narrative in talking about Trump, Brexit, and Bernie. At first, they dismissed them as fads or hoaxes faced with insurmountable odds.
“How could Jeb Bush lose?” said right-wing talk-show host, Rush Limbaugh. “British citizens will see the light!”

“Hillary’s coronation is all but guaranteed,” said The New York Times columnist Ross Douthat.

Look where we are now.

But pundits aren’t the issue here. They couldn’t have seen the populations of people who are the backbones of these movements: the liberal college students across America who led the Bernie or Bust movement; the economically depressed, conservative, white racist population in England who is tired of a faceless international organization stealing their hard-earned tax dollars to save Syrian refugees, or the similar populations in America who want to “Make America Great Again.”

Disenchanted blocs of voters have always existed in some number, but now they have spaces, like Twitter, and figureheads, like Donald or Bernie, through which they have made their opinions known—deplorable as those may be.

A revolution of this type and scope has taken years to come about and it will be a while until the effects fully materialize. Years of political and economic dissatisfaction have resulted in this enormous population of people with a distrust for “the establishment” — politicians, corporations and our world as a whole.

Emotions are running so strong that these traditionally-centrist and satisfied people are able to abandon some or all of their values; they have turned to people like Trump, Sanders, or Johnson as a way of voicing their displeasures.

Liberals, like me, may still be in disbelief at people who want to build a wall, defund Planned Parenthood and restrict which bathrooms we can use. But this is our reality now, and our democracy must adapt as it always has.

Although putting them in a basket and calling them deplorable might seem effective and necessary, how much progress have we ever gotten with that approach?

What the mainstreaming of bigotry has done is create a shift in our overall political climate. But the fundamentals of our democracy remain. And, as we should with any new ideological group that gains power in that democracy, all factions of America must work together to craft meaningful legislation that benefits the majority.

Bernie supporters rally in Greensboro on September 13, 2015. Photo courtesy Julia Klein

Shots Spur Protests

Protests in Charlotte have been continuous since the shooting of Keith Lamont Scott on September 20. Violent protests followed the shooting, leading to 40 police arrests. North Carolina’s governor is implementing a 12:00am curfew for the people who live in Charlotte.

Police officers were in the parking lot of the Village of College Downs apartment complex, looking for someone unrelated to the shooting. They apparently noticed Scott exiting his vehicle with a handgun, then getting back into his car. When the officers approached him, he returned to his vehicle but did not comply with the officers’ requests.

Charlotte police withheld the video footage of Scott’s shooting for fear of disturbing his family. When the footage was released, it did not show Scott holding a handgun or acting aggressively. Officer Brently Vinson, who shot Scott, has been put on paid leave.

While there was no handgun present in the video footage, there have been photos released of a handgun holding Scott’s DNA. There were also photos of a marijuana blunt found at the scene.  

“It is well within your political right to protest, so I don’t think personally as far as any legal consequences there is nothing I could do to stop you.” Said Officer Mayfield when asked about the issues of protests. “As far as I’m concerned, I would just make sure all of you are all safe for one, and two that there weren’t any major incidents where it broke into a fight.”

Angry Charlotte residents flooded the streets. In the first two nights after the shooting, the streets of Charlotte saw vandalism, violence and injuries. After the curfew was put into place, the protesters became more peaceful. Police have since allowed them to stay out after curfew.

The protests started out aggressive, but as the police officers attempted to control the demonstrators, they became peaceful. Police shot tear gas and fired flash grenades at the protestors in order to maintain control.

“I was very upset that such a horrible thing had happened in my city, but the response that the city had was amazing. Overall, most of the protests were peaceful and supported by most of the city.” Aubrey Hill, a high schooler at Ardrey Kell High School in Charlotte, said.

Protests break out in Charlotte. Photo courtesy CNN.com

When Computers Choose who Lives and who Dies

Two cars are heading towards each other on a narrow bridge. Their brakes are failing, and they each have two options: swerve or continue straight. If both cars do the same thing, both drivers die. But if one swerves off the bridge and the other doesn’t, one driver lives. In most cases, the drivers will both choose to do nothing and both die. But what if they don’t have a choice?

With the arrival of self-driving cars, which are controlled by computers rather than people, this choice of what to do in the case of an imminent crash could no longer be for the driver to make.
Instead, life and death decisions may be determined by a so-called “death algorithm” downloaded into the car at its construction.

In July, the owner of a Tesla died when his vehicle, set to autopilot, failed to brake and collided with a trailer-truck. He was not driving, and some consumer advocates argue Tesla should be held responsible.

With the fast pace of technological innovations, we are destined to see more and more self-driving car on the roads in the near future. Many will still have aspects that allow humans to override autonomous control, but the cars will eventually be forced to make more choices about imminent collisions.
Soon, autonomous cars will be able to communicate information with each other, such as how many passengers each has and who those passengers are, in fractions of a second, and then act accordingly.

But do you choose who lives and who dies based off this information, and how?
What if one of the cars on the bridge contained a family of six, and the other a single passenger? A convicted felon in one, and the President in another?

I know these scenarios are hypothetical, but self-driving cars are here. I am not a philosopher nor any kind of expert in morality, but someone will have to answer these questions before autonomous cars become widely available. So here’s what I believe.

The minute we start attaching different values to different lives, we cross the moral line. Call me unsympathetic, but I do not care if the crash is going to be between a schoolbus of children and a bus of inmates on death row; a life is a life. There cannot be a grey area.

We could ask the algorithm to save as many lives as possible, even if it meant suicide for certain cars. But who would buy a car they knew could choose to kill them? How would you feel if someone close to you died because their vehicle was on track to collide with a group who happened to carpool that day?
That leaves a last option: the algorithm is told to always act in the best interest of its own passengers. More lives would be lost, but this is the way we drive now. We prioritize ourselves. We cannot swerve off the bridge.

If you look in terms of the bigger picture, we are selfish. But that’s ok. Self-preservation is what makes us human. The value we put on our own lives is not wrong; rather, it is what distinguishes us from the technology we build.

Computers don’t have instincts or emotions. They’re highly analytical and able prioritize society over the individual with ease. Which unsettles us, rightly.

Whatever your opinion, try to think about these things now rather than later. Write to Congress (if you believe the government should have a role in regulating death algorithms), Google, Tesla; make these decisions about your life and the lives of those around you rather than leave them up manufacturers of self-driving cars.

As our world becomes more technologically advanced, we will need to figure out how exactly we want this world to look. Computers cannot think on their own (yet), so we are the ones who get tell them what to do. Let’s make sure we’re telling them the right things, whatever you interpret that to be.

Senior Paige Watson lets her car do all the driving. Photo by Mireille Leone

Carrboro High Keeps the Hive Alive

Carrboro High School’s newest addition will play a significant role in various classrooms and clubs.

But the newcomers are not freshmen; they are bees. Environmental science teacher Stefan Klakovich is among several teachers and students who welcome their arrival. “The bees found us,” he said.

The Orange County Beekeepers Association serves to promote beekeeping and protect local hives. They do so by installing hives in public areas to increase awareness. The public and calm environment of CHS seemed an ideal area for installation. So when John Rintoul of the OCBA reached out to the school, Klakovich was eager to accommodate the bees. “I just jumped at the opportunity,” Klakovich said.

Klakovich plans to integrate the bees into his lessons on ecosystem services, a term to describe environmental benefits for humans. According to Rintoul, bees are vital for food production, with one-third of human food consumption reliant on pollinators.

Dr. Raymond Thomas, a CHS science teacher, says bees are also financially beneficial. Regarding their monetary value, Thomas said, “they contribute to U.S agriculture over $30 billion annually.”

Despite the species’ benefits, bee advocates argue they are misunderstood. Though viewed as aggressive, honey bees are a defensive species according to Rintoul and Thomas. Yellow jacket and wasp stings are often mistaken for bee stings, Rintoul explained.

Some misunderstandings prove harmful to bees. Pesticide use, a common human activity, can kill large bee populations. In response to the recent Zika epidemics, pesticides are increasingly prevalent. This September, millions of South Carolina bees died following mass pesticide sprays.

Senior Rodrigo Dubon hopes to counter such incidences. During his junior year, he started the CHS Bee Club. The club’s mission is to raise awareness of the species’ importance, as well as the dangers bees face. “If more people learn to appreciate the crucial roles that bees have in our environments, then maybe they’d be willing to step up and… help stop the gradual decline of their population,” Dubon said via email.

Before CHS housed hives, the Bee Club had limited options. Dubon is excited for the opportunities the bees bring to campus. “Since the hives are permanent, students will be able to get some hands-on experience with bees,” he said

Students looking to learn more about beehives are encouraged to join the Bee Club. Anyone interested in beekeeping can attend the OCBA Bee School, starting in January. Scholarships will be awarded to two or three students, and the application process begins in November.

John Rintoul, Katie Knotek and Sarah Brennum interact with bees. Photo by Mireille Leone

The Equality Issue No One Talks About

In today’s economy, a woman is paid seventy-nine cents for every dollar a man makes. That difference – the extra twenty-one cents males are paid for having a Y chromosome – is called the “gender pay gap.”

One of the core ideals of the United States is life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all. The idea is to give everyone the same tools, then it’s up to the individual to achieve what he or she can with them. Today, only white males (like myself) are granted the full set of freedoms that our country supposedly gives everyone.

The gender pay gap has existed ever since women entered the workforce after World War II. In the 1960, women were paid forty cents less than men. That means in the last fifty years, we have cut the gap by a measly twenty cents.

If women aren’t given the same opportunity that men are to make money, how can the U.S. brag about freedom and equality for all? For the U.S. to continue as the beacon of democracy and fairness we love to think of ourselves as, fixing the gender pay gap ought to be a top priority.

The question remains: how do we fix the gap? A good start would be outlawing pay inequality, but the U.S. has already tried that. In 1963, Congress passed the Equal Pay act with the goal of “equal pay for equal work.” The law did create some success, as the twenty cent decrease in the pay gap since 1960 demonstrates.

However, the U.S. government does not have the ability to check the salaries of every company in the US for pay equality, so simply stating in law that women and men will be paid the same does not solve the issue.

A simple solution that would close the gap is a ban on negotiation for salaries. Men are, statistically, better negotiators than women. Fifty-seven percent of men ask for higher salaries than what is offered to them, but only 50% of women do the same, according to a Princeton study.

As a result, men start with higher salaries than women, so even if pay raises are the same for both genders, men make more money. By banning salary negotiation, starting salaries would be the same for every new employee at the company. Men would also benefit – not all males are comfortable negotiating, so a ban on salary negotiation would level the playing field for males as well.

Although most of us at Carrboro High School have never had to negotiate for a salary, almost all professional fields have salary negotiation at some level, meaning a good amount of CHS students will encounter it. The practice is antiquated and unfair – being a good negotiator does not mean you will be a good employee.

The issues that lead to discrimination are often deeply rooted in institutions and have no easy solution. The gender pay gap follows this trend. Banning salary negotiation will most likely not end the gap, but it will almost certainly close the difference between male and female salaries, pushing us closer to fulfilling our promise of equality and freedom for all.

Freshman Jordan Smith and Junior Chris Hodge represent the pay gap. Photo by Mireille Leone; photo illustration by Sofia Dimos

Blast to the Past: A Look Back at the First Four-Year Graduating Class of CHS

Two thousand and seven: the year Steve Jobs released the first iPhone, J.K. Rowling published the final installment of the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Barack Obama announced his candidacy for President (and became a household name) and the chart-topping song was Umbrella by Rihanna.

As people prepared for the last Harry Potter book, or the newest technology, a handful of students in Carrboro and Chapel Hill prepared for their first day of a new school. In August of 2007, Carrboro High School opened its doors for the first time, welcoming a class of freshman and sophomores from Chapel Hill High. 2007 seems like a different world, but it wasn’t even ten years ago. As we come up on Carrboro’s tenth anniversary, we spoke with some of the first Carrboro graduates (class of 2010-2011) to see what they had to say about their experiences at CHS.

Adam Glasser

Currently: Working as a teacher assistant at a elementary school during the day and attending classes at NC State at night.

High school activities: Track, Cross Country, Basketball, and Lacrosse

Adam Glasser in High School before T Dance. Photo courtesy Adam Glasser.

Adam Glasser in High School before T Dance. Photo courtesy Adam Glasser.

What were some of your favorite memories from your time at Carrboro?

The pranks we pulled my senior year were memorable. Three of my buddies inadvertently set fire to the grass behind the school while setting off fireworks. This should be part of Carrboro history forever in my opinion. During senior week, we filled up what must have been thousands of cups full of water and covered the halls with them. The next morning, the seniors had to clean up the cups, which was probably a mistake on the administration’s part because we ended up sending waves of water into various math classrooms. Now that I am working at a school, I want to apologize for these shenanigans on behalf of the Class of 2011!

What are some defining characteristics of Carrboro?

I love how tight knit Carrboro was when I was a student there. I think I knew just about every face in the school (and almost every name). When I was living in San Francisco this past year, I went to the Bay Area’s “Official UNC vs. Duke Game Watch Party”. I recognized four other Jaguars that were at Carrboro with me when I was in high school. Even though we had graduated in different years, it was great catching up with them and bonding with them over our experiences as Carrboro students.

Anna Noone

Currently: Working for the legislative and public policy group at Arnold & Porter, a law firm in DC.

High school activities: Class council, Model UN, Spanish Honors Society

Anna Noone (middle) in high school. Photo courtesy Anna Noone.

Anna Noone (middle) in high school. Photo courtesy Anna Noone.

What were some of your favorite memories from your time at Carrboro?

I don’t know if they still do or allow this, but our class council had a lot of school lock ins and those were always so much fun. AP Bio (weird as this sounds) was another favorite. Before my junior year I took a trip to Spain with a group from the school which was amazing. Just generally though most of my best friends are my high school friends – so most of the time I spent there was great.

Anna Noone (right) this year with friends. Photo courtesy Anna Noone.

Anna Noone (right) this year with friends. Photo courtesy Anna Noone.

How do you think your time at Carrboro has influenced you today?

I did not realize while I was at Carrboro how important it was to have such an open, inclusive community that really rejected a lot of the types of prejudice you see in other similar schools. I found it to be very accepting but thought that was the norm until I spoke with people who had had very different experiences in high school, with more racism or homophobia or exclusive cliques. I think it made me a more confident person and more comfortable with myself than I may otherwise have been. Definitely don’t take that for granted.

Do you have any advice for this year’s graduating class, going through their senior year of high school right now?

Don’t take it for granted.  Senior year has the potential to be so much fun, but at the same time don’t go too crazy. Don’t stress too much about college; Carrboro High does about as good a job of preparing you for college as you can do. Take your AP exams seriously – you’ll love getting placed out of gen eds in college. It’s never too early to start planning ahead.

Abby Dennison

Currently: Moving back from a year in Paris and relocating to California, where she’s studying to become a French teacher at Stanford.

High school activities: Marching Band, Math team, Jagwire writer, JAG and SPOT

Abby Denison in a marching band outfit in high school. Photo courtesy Abby Denison.

Abby Denison in a marching band outfit in high school. Photo courtesy Abby Denison.

What are some defining characteristics of Carrboro?

What strikes me about Carrboro looking back is how much freedom we had. So many of the organizations, initiatives, and special events were nearly entirely student-run—it was a little like Lord of the Flies, except with really happy and positive outcomes. (So, I guess, not at all like Lord of the Flies…) It felt like we were really self-governed and self-directed. Because the school was new, students could start anything and everything. Really, nothing was impossible! And we had teachers who trusted us, cared about us, and encouraged us to dream big.

Carrboro was also a place of community action, where students and teachers alike were passionate about social causes, political reform, and big ideas. Pretty cool for a high school!  This, I know, hasn’t changed, and is part of the core of what Carrboro is. I hope that the community holds onto this; it has the power to be truly transformative for the students that pass through here.

Abby Denison in Paris this year. Photo courtesy Abby Denison.

Abby Denison in Paris this year. Photo courtesy Abby Denison.

How do you think your time at Carrboro has influenced you today?

I was a late bloomer for sure, and Carrboro was such a safe and welcoming space for me to learn who I was. It was a place where it was cool to be nerdy, where everybody knew everybody, and where we really loved to learn and debate and create. Now that I’m becoming a teacher myself, I realize how special this is! Carrboro introduced me to so many fantastic role models and new ideas…the teachers really, sincerely believed in our potential as a generation. Their encouragement gave me the confidence to take risks and try new things, and I think that’s carried me into college and beyond.

Top photo: Adam Glasser at a school in Capetown, South Africa this year.  Photo courtesy Adam Glasser.

Midsummer Night’s Dream

Plot line: It’s the year 1600. Two characters, young Lysander and Hermia, are madly in love with plans to get married, but they can’t. Hermia’s father wants Hermia to marry Demetrius. But Demetrius can’t marry Hermia, because he has to go fight in World War II. Doesn’t sound quite right? It’s not. Carrboro High School’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, by William Shakespeare will be performed in November with the original script, but a 1940’s setting and theme.

The plot in Midsummer Night’s Dream is as follows: Lysander and Hermia, are planning to get married, but their plans are foiled by Hermia’s father who wants her to marry Demetrius. Demetrius is also in love with Hermia, but Hermia is in love with Lysander. And in addition, Helena is in love with Demetrius. Throughout the story, everyone’s plans are a little ruined when Puck, the fairy king, comes and causes trouble with the help of a few love potions. In addition to all of this a small troupe of actors is struggling to put on a decent performance of a show.

“I know they’re going to use the costumes and setting a lot. They showed us the costumes today, and a lot of it’s old timey, 1940’s stuff.” said freshman Caroline Watson, in reference to the 1940’s theme. Some scenes will stay pretty similar, many take place in a forest with the fairies, but many set and costume aspects will be adapted to fit the 1940’s theme, despite the script being the original, Shakespearean version

In addition to the challenges of memorizing lines and blocking that come with any theater production, interpreting a Shakespearean play is no easy feat.

“It’s a very foreign way of speaking, so i sometimes have trouble understanding what things mean” said senior Daniel O’Grady.

Every rehearsal the actors went through the lines and scenes to make sure they knew what was happening in each scene, what all their lines meant, and if they grasped the concept. With a firm understanding, the actors could put the right tone of voice and meaning into the lines, instead of just reading them from the page. Only after all of this was achieved, could the actors begin memorizing lines and working on the blocking

“The translations we’ve been doing are the biggest difference in the rehearsal process.” said senior Thomas Cassidy, noting the difference between A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and previous Carrboro shows. “In the past, we haven’t had to translate other shows. In other shows, we just had to get context, we didn’t have to translate the words, since it was written in modern english.”

With the combination of 1600’s and 1940’s, we asked the cast to say a few words about the show itself. Among their answers were “hectic, magical, fun, complicated, and an altogether crazy and fantastic experience.”

You can see Carrboro High School’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream November 3,4, 5 at 7:30pm and November 6 at 2:30pm. Tickets are $5 for students, $10 for adults, and free for CHCCS Faculty and Staff. The are available now at seatyourself.biz/jagtheatre

Student Spotlight: Emmanuel Oquaye

Q1: What started your love of sculpting?

A1: In ceramics class freshman year, I was given a sculpting assignment and at first it was just an assignment but I took it so much more seriously.

Q1.5: What was the assignment?
A1.5: An animal sculpture that everyone did. I just gravitated to it a lot more than other people, and they started noticing that and that I was doing a good job that displayed my talent.

Q2: And how long have you been sculpting?
A2: Three years now.

Q3: What do you like so much about sculpting?
A3: You can be more creative than you can be with the wheel.

Q4: Do you also work on the wheel?
A4: Yeah the wheel is always beautiful but I prefer sculpting because it’s so free. Obviously there are advantages to both.

Q5: Where do you plan on going with your sculpting?
A5: I might want to do an art show. I want a studio; that’s the dream

Q5.5: Do you have any extra-curriculars running right now with your sculpting?
A5.5: Yeah, the Empty Bowl Club. We make bowls together, not just Carrboro students, but lots of people from the art center and other things. Basically, with those bowls, we prepare meals and have a sort of community dinner. People pay $30 for the meal and the artwork. All proceeds go to CORA Food Pantry to help feed hungry kids in the area. A lot of people don’t know, but there are kids in the area who are [hungry]. And it doesn’t have to be homeless starving either, just look at the kids who eat reduced or free lunch.

Q6: Anything else you’d like to add?
A6: Ceramics is an awesome class. Ms. Schiavone has helped me grow as a creator, shoutout Ms. Schiavone.

Senior Emmanuel Aquaye.  Photo by Mireille Leone.

Streaming Exclusives: Music

Students at Carrboro have been feeling the isolating effects of music streaming albums lately.

Whereas music used to be available to any dedicated fan willing to spend a few dollars, it now exists in a market in which artists sign off on deals in which only one streaming service can release their music.

The most recent example of this new trend in the music industry is the case of Frank Ocean’s Sophomore full-length album Blond.  An Apple Music Exclusive, Carrboro students who aren’t subscribed are up in arms about the exclusion.

“When Frank Ocean’s album first came out, I was giddy as a kid!” said Declan Sistachs, senior.  “I was thinking to myself ‘here comes Frankie with that soul sound I just need!’  And when I discovered that his album was unavailable to someone who didn’t subscribe to a streamer, just like Kanye’s album, I just felt left out.”  When asked if he would pay the 10 dollars a month, Sistachs said “of course not, that’s ridiculous.  I’m not paying 120 dollars a year just to hear an album.”

Carrboro students are set to become increasingly upset heading into 2017, as more artists are pledging their allegiance to different streaming services.  Whether it be with Kanye West’s Tidal, or Apple Music, or even Spotify, more artists are signing these deals.

When asked if she would consider paying the monthly fees of a streaming service if her favorite artist released an exclusive album, senior Katie Fesperman said “I don’t think so.  I subscribe to spotify, but if my favorite artist became exclusive to Tidal or Apple Music, I don’t think I would pay the money just to hear the artist.  I won’t pay for an artist who’s in it just for the money.”

Whether it means they are in it only for the money or not, it’s undeniable that more artists are signing off on these deals.  As the industry moves even further away from hard cover album sales to online streams, it only makes sense that the artists will set themselves up for a future in which maximum profit is guaranteed.

Streaming Exclusives Challenge Traditional TV

The way we watch TV shows has changed drastically over the years, resulting in more complex narrative structures and an increase in the overall quality of television.

In the past, viewers kept up with shows by tuning every week. Now, online streaming sources like Netflix, Amazon and Hulu dominate TV and remove that agonizing weekly wait for new episodes.

Netflix began as a source for streaming old TV shows and movies released five or ten years prior. In the past few years, Netflix’s angle has completely changed and shifted into releasing original shows, recent seasons of TV and films.

With a positive response from viewers who prefer more options when they watch a show, Hulu and Amazon have followed in Netflix’s footsteps.

“Five years ago I watched TV on the actual TV,”  said junior Margaret Reed, “and now I watch it on my computer via Netflix.”

Reed represents the majority who have switched from TV to streaming. According to a 2014 Adobe study, the number of viewers watching online TV has grown drastically, with rates more than doubling from 2013 to 2014. For many, the convenience of watching on a portable device outweighs the draw of traditional TVs.  

“I can take my laptop anywhere and watch it anytime,” said Reed.

Alongside an increased number of online streaming creators comes the ability to have diverse content that pushes the limits of TV we see today. With a new variety of shows, producers no longer have to restrict their scripts to meet specific guidelines within TV networks. Instead, they are free to let their creators run shows without much interference.

Controversial shows like Netflix’s Orange is the New Black and Amazon’s Transparent are just a few examples showing greater diversity in streaming than broadcast.

Since the age of binging entire series has arrived, the benchmark for what viewers expect has changed. Shows that are exclusively online are taking on more complex plots because viewers are able to watch episodes one after another. Now, TV show creators feel pressured to add layers of complexity and depth to their shows.

In contrast, the plots of traditional TV shows have to be structured around ad breaks. For example, producers of shows like Quantico or Law and Order craft cliffhangers before and after ad breaks to keep viewers intrigued.

The rise of streaming media challenges this longheld practice. Streaming exclusives,  uninterrupted by ads or breaks between episodes, continue to increase in popularity because they provide instant gratification.

For the Eleven fans and Frank Underwood fanatics, traditional television is becoming a remote thing of the past.